Samurai in Japanese literature - Wikipedia

 

samurai literature

Introduction to “The Last Samurai” Edward Zwick, the director of “legend of the fall”, co-produced this war and drama film, based on a true story depicting honor . Code of the Samurai in Art and Literature (lesson) The first man across the Uji River and the battle of Awazugahara, from The Tale of the Heike, one of a pair, – Japan. Edo period (–). Pair of six-panel screens, ink, colors, and gold on paper. In addition to warrior skills, samurai were expected to be well-educated in other areas, such as literature and history. During the Tokugawa period, a peaceful era, the samurai were not needed much as warriors, so these academic skills were especially useful. However, some samurai masters warned their students not to dwell on words and Author: Ed Grabianowski.


Samurai - Wikipedia


In both countries the terms were nominalized to mean 'those who serve in close attendance to the nobility', the Japanese term saburai being the nominal form of the verb. By the end of the 12th century, samurai became almost entirely synonymous with bushisamurai literature, and the word was closely associated with the middle and upper echelons of the warrior class.

The samurai were usually associated with a clan and their lordand were trained as officers in military tactics and grand strategy.

This edict allowed the Japanese aristocracy to adopt the Tang dynasty political structure, samurai literatureculture, religion, and philosophy, samurai literature. With an understanding of how the population was distributed, Emperor Monmu introduced a law whereby 1 in 3—4 adult males were drafted into the national military. These soldiers were required to supply their own weapons, and in return were exempted from duties and taxes.

Those of 6th rank and below were referred to as "samurai" and dealt with day-to-day affairs. Although these "samurai" were civilian public servants, the modern word is believed [ by whom? Military men, however, would not be referred to as "samurai" for many more centuries.

At this time the 7th to 9th centuriesthe Imperial Court officials considered them to be samurai literature a military section under the control of the Imperial Court. Samurai literature, Emperor Kanmu disbanded his army. From this time, the emperor's power gradually declined.

While the emperor was samurai literature the ruler, powerful clans around Kyoto assumed positions as ministers, samurai literature, and their relatives bought positions as magistrates.

To amass wealth and repay their debts, samurai literature, magistrates often imposed heavy taxes, resulting in many samurai literature becoming landless. Some clans were originally formed by farmers who had taken up arms to protect themselves from the Imperial magistrates sent to samurai literature their lands and samurai literature taxes.

These clans formed alliances to protect themselves against more powerful clans, samurai literature, and by the mid-Heian period, they had adopted characteristic Japanese armor and weapons. Originally, the Emperor and non-warrior nobility employed these warrior nobles. In time they amassed enough manpower, resources and political samurai literature, in the form of alliances with one another, to establish the first samurai-dominated government.

As the power of these regional clans grew, their chief was typically a distant relative of the Emperor and a lesser member of either the FujiwaraMinamotoor Taira clans. Though originally sent to provincial areas for fixed four-year terms as magistrates, the toryo declined to return to the samurai literature when their terms ended, and their sons inherited their positions and continued to lead the clans in putting down rebellions throughout Japan during the middle- and later-Heian period.

Because of their rising military and economic power, samurai literature, the warriors ultimately became a new force in the politics of the Imperial court. The victor, Taira no Kiyomoribecame an imperial advisor and was the first warrior to attain such a position. He eventually seized control of the central government, establishing the first samurai-dominated government and relegating the Emperor to figurehead status.

However, the Taira clan was still very conservative when compared to its eventual successor, samurai literature, the Minamoto, and instead of expanding or strengthening its military might, the clan had its women marry Emperors and exercise control through the Emperor.

The Taira and the Minamoto clashed again inbeginning the Genpei Warwhich ended in The victorious Minamoto no Yoritomo established the superiority of the samurai over the aristocracy. Instead of ruling from Kyoto, he set up the shogunate in Kamakuranear his base of power. Initially, their responsibility was restricted to arresting rebels and collecting needed army provisions and they were forbidden from interfering with Kokushi officials, but their responsibility gradually expanded.

Thus, the samurai-class appeared as the political ruling power in Japan. Various samurai clans struggled for power during the Kamakura and Ashikaga shogunates. Zen Buddhism spread among the samurai in the 13th century and helped to shape their standards of conduct, particularly overcoming the fear of death and killing, but among the general populace Pure Land Buddhism was favored.

Japan mustered a mere 10, samurai to meet this threat. The invading army was harassed by major thunderstorms throughout the invasionsamurai literature, which aided the defenders by inflicting heavy casualties. The Yuan army was eventually recalled and the invasion was called off. The Mongol invaders used small bombswhich was likely the first appearance of bombs and gunpowder in Japan. The Japanese defenders recognized the possibility of a renewed invasion and began construction of a great stone barrier around Hakata Bay in Completed inthis wall stretched for 20 kilometers around the border of the bay.

It would later serve as a strong defensive samurai literature against the Mongols. The Mongols attempted to settle matters in a diplomatic way from to samurai literature, but every envoy sent to Japan was executed.

This continued defiance of the Mongol Emperor set the stage for one of the most famous engagements in Japanese history. Ina Yuan army ofsamurai literature, men with 5, ships was mustered for another invasion of Japan. The casualties and damage inflicted by the typhoon, samurai literature by the Japanese defense of the Hakata Bay barrier, resulted in the Mongols again being defeated. The thunderstorms of and the typhoon of helped the samurai defenders of Japan repel the Mongol invaders despite being vastly outnumbered.

These winds became known as kami-no-Kazewhich literally translates as "wind of the gods". This is often given a simplified translation as "divine wind". The kami-no-Kaze lent credence to the Japanese belief that their lands were indeed divine and under supernatural protection.

During this period, the tradition of Japanese swordsmithing developed using laminated or piled steela technique dating back over 2, years in the Mediterranean and Europe of combining layers of soft and hard steel to produce a blade with a very hard but brittle edge, capable of being highly sharpened, supported by a softer, tougher, more flexible spine, samurai literature. The Japanese swordsmiths refined this technique by using multiple layers of steel of varying composition, together with differential heat treatmentor tempering, samurai literature, of the finished blade, achieved by protecting part of it with a layer of clay while quenching as explained in the article on Japanese swordsmithing.

The craft was perfected in the 14th century by samurai literature great swordsmith Masamune. The Japanese sword katana became renowned around the world for its sharpness and resistance to breaking.

Many swords made samurai literature these techniques were exported across the East China Seaa few making their way as far as India. Issues of inheritance caused family strife as primogeniture became common, in contrast to the division of succession designated by law before the 14th century. Invasions of neighboring samurai territories became common to avoid infighting, samurai literature, and bickering among samurai was a constant problem for the Kamakura and Ashikaga shogunates.

The Sengoku jidai "warring states period" was marked by the loosening of samurai culture, with people born into other social strata sometimes making a name for themselves as warriors and thus becoming de facto samurai.

Japanese war tactics and technologies improved rapidly in the 15th and 16th centuries. Use of large numbers of infantry called ashigaru "light-foot", due to their light armorformed of humble warriors or ordinary people with naga yari a long lance or naginatawas introduced and combined with cavalry in maneuvers.

The number samurai literature people mobilized in warfare ranged from thousands to hundreds of thousands. The arquebusa matchlock gun, samurai literature, was introduced by the Portuguese via a Chinese pirate ship in and the Japanese succeeded in assimilating it within a decade. Groups of mercenaries with mass-produced arquebuses began playing a critical role.

By the end of the Sengoku period, several hundred thousand firearms existed in Japan and massive armies numbering overclashed in battles. Oda Nobunaga was the well-known lord of the Nagoya samurai literature once called Owari Province and an exceptional example of a samurai of the Sengoku period.

Oda Nobunaga made innovations in the fields of organization and war tactics, samurai literature, made heavy use of arquebuses, samurai literature, developed commerce and industry, and treasured innovation. Consecutive victories enabled him to realize the termination of the Ashikaga Bakufu and the disarmament of the military powers of the Buddhist monks, which had inflamed futile struggles among the populace for centuries.

Attacking from the "sanctuary" of Buddhist temples, they were constant headaches to any warlord and even the Emperor who tried to control their actions. He died in when one of his generals, Akechi Mitsuhideturned upon him with his army. Importantly, Toyotomi Hideyoshi see below and Samurai literature Ieyasuwho founded the Tokugawa shogunate, were loyal followers of Nobunaga. Hideyoshi began as a peasant and became one of Nobunaga's top generals, and Ieyasu samurai literature shared his childhood with Nobunaga.

Samurai literature defeated Mitsuhide within a month, and was regarded as the rightful successor of Nobunaga by avenging the treachery of Mitsuhide. These two were able to use Nobunaga's previous achievements on which build a unified Japan and there was a saying: "The reunification is a rice cake; Oda made it.

Hashiba shaped it. In the end, samurai literature Ieyasu tastes it. Toyotomi Hideyoshiwho became a grand minister inhimself the son of a poor peasant family, created a law that the samurai caste became codified as permanent and hereditary, and that non-samurai were forbidden to carry weapons, thereby ending the social mobility of Japan up until that point, which lasted until the dissolution of the Edo shogunate by the Meiji revolutionaries.

It is important to note that the distinction between samurai and non-samurai was so obscure that during the 16th century, most male adults in any social class even small farmers belonged to at least one military organization of their own and served in wars before and during Hideyoshi's rule. It can samurai literature said that an "all against all" situation continued for a century.

The authorized samurai families after the 17th century were those that chose to follow Nobunaga, Hideyoshi and Samurai literature. Taking advantage of arquebus mastery and extensive wartime experience from the Sengoku period, Japanese samurai armies made major gains in most of Korea.

Shimazu Yoshihiro led some 7, samurai and, despite being heavily outnumbered, defeated a host of allied Ming and Korean forces at the Battle of Sacheon innear the conclusion of the campaigns, samurai literature. In spite of the superiority of Japanese land forces, samurai literature, ultimately the two expeditions failed, though they did devastate the Korean peninsula, samurai literature. The causes of the failure included Korean naval superiority which, led by Admiral Yi Sun-sinsamurai literature, harassed Japanese supply lines continuously throughout the wars, samurai literature, resulting in supply shortages on landthe commitment of sizeable Ming forces to Korea, Korean guerrilla actions, wavering Japanese commitment to the campaigns as the wars dragged on, and the underestimation of resistance by Japanese commanders.

In the first campaign ofKorean defenses on land were caught unprepared, under-trained, and under-armed; they were rapidly overrun, with only a limited number of successfully resistant engagements against the more experienced and battle-hardened Japanese forces. During the second campaign, inhowever, Korean and Ming forces proved far more resilient and, with the support of continued Korean naval superiority, managed to limit Japanese gains to parts of southeastern Korea.

The final death blow to the Japanese campaigns in Korea came with Hideyoshi's death in late and the recall of all Japanese forces in Korea by the Council of Five Elders established by Hideyoshi to oversee the transition from his regency to that of his son Hideyori. Social mobility was samurai literature, as the ancient regime collapsed and emerging samurai needed to maintain a large military and administrative organizations in samurai literature areas of influence.

Most of the samurai families that survived to the 19th century originated in this era, declaring themselves to be the blood of one of the four ancient noble clans: MinamotoTairaFujiwara and Tachibana. In most cases, however, it is samurai literature to prove these claims.

During the Tokugawa shogunatesamurai increasingly became courtiers, samurai literature, bureaucrats, and administrators rather than warriors. With no warfare since the early 17th century, samurai gradually lost their military function during the Tokugawa era also called the Edo period. They were strongly emphasized by the teachings of Confucius — BC and Mencius — BC samurai literature, which were required reading for the educated samurai class, samurai literature.

The leading figures who introduced confucianism in Japan in the early Tokugawa period were Fujiwara Seika —Hayashi Razan — and Matsunaga Sekigo — The conduct of samurai served samurai literature role model behavior samurai literature the other social classes. With time on their hands, samurai spent more time in pursuit of other interests such as becoming scholars, samurai literature.

The relative peace of the Tokugawa era was shattered with the arrival of Commodore Matthew Perry 's massive U. Navy steamships in Perry used his superior firepower to force Japan to open its borders to trade.

Prior to that only a few harbor towns, under strict control from the shogunate, were allowed to participate in Western trade, and even then, it was based largely on the idea of playing the Franciscans and Dominicans off against one another in exchange for the crucial arquebus technology, which in turn samurai literature a major contributor to the downfall of the classical samurai.

Fromsamurai literature samurai army and the navy were modernized, samurai literature. A naval training school was established in Nagasaki in Naval students were sent to study in Western naval schools for several years, starting a tradition of foreign-educated future leaders, such as Admiral Enomoto. French naval engineers were hired to build naval arsenals, such as Yokosuka and Nagasaki.

 

Training for Life and War - How Samurai Work | HowStuffWorks

 

samurai literature

 

In addition to warrior skills, samurai were expected to be well-educated in other areas, such as literature and history. During the Tokugawa period, a peaceful era, the samurai were not needed much as warriors, so these academic skills were especially useful. However, some samurai masters warned their students not to dwell on words and Author: Ed Grabianowski. Kabuki was far more informational than Noh. Its themes involved common people, but was still performed by men. It included melodramatic singing and dancing with extraordinary costumes and and heavy make up. As the world around started to modern, so did the drama in the Japanese. Code of the Samurai in Art and Literature (lesson) The first man across the Uji River and the battle of Awazugahara, from The Tale of the Heike, one of a pair, – Japan. Edo period (–). Pair of six-panel screens, ink, colors, and gold on paper.