Crime Prevention Articles - Inquiries Journal

 

crime prevention articles

Crime prevention is defined as "the anticipation, the recognition, and the appraisal of a crime risk and the initiation of action to remove or reduce it.". The first step in crime prevention is to realize that in order to prevent crime or becoming a crime victim, we must accept that crime prevention is . Community crime prevention programs or strategies target changes in community infrastructure, culture, or the physical environment in order to reduce crime. The diversity of approaches include neighborhood watch, community policing, urban or physical design, and comprehensive or multi-disciplinary efforts. Crime Prevention Patch. The National Sheriffs' Association is offering Crime Prevention Patches to any sheriffs office and sheriffs department across the nation. These patches are given to area Boy Scout troops and Explorer Scout programs for their involvement in the crime prevention process.


Building Efficient Crime Prevention Strategies


The aftermath of the global recession has encouraged policy makers to confront the staggering public burden of crime Crime prevention articles,; Ludwig, ; McCollister, French, and Fang, ; Miller, Cohen, and Rossman, In response, innovative strategies for preventing crime and controlling crime prevention articles are being engaged Barnett and Masse, ; Guyll, Spoth, crime prevention articles, and Crowley, ; Welsh and Farrington, At the forefront are developmental prevention programs that intervene early in life to reduce risk factors for delinquent and criminal behaviors Durlak, ; Eckenrode et al, crime prevention articles.

As a growing body of evidence illustrates, when implemented appropriately, these developmental prevention efforts not only effectively prevent crime but also are cost-effective solutions that save public resources Crowley, Hill, Kuklinski, and Jones, ; Crowley, Jones, Greenberg, Feinberg, and Spoth, ; Heckman, Moon, Pinto, Savelyev, and Yavitz, ; Klietz, Borduin, and Schaeffer, ; Kuklinski, Briney, Hawkins, and Catalano, ; Reynolds et al.

Manning, crime prevention articles, Smith, and Homelthis issue outline an innovative approach for valuing these programs to guide policy making. This method ultimately provides an important framework for discussing how to build effective and efficient crime prevention efforts informed by developmental science Gifford-Smith, Dodge, Dishion, and McCord, ; Lerner et al.

In this essay, I expand on Manning et al. I then discuss the importance of considering local programming capacity when investing in prevention and the economic value of prevention approaches that invest in both youth and their families i. Next, I provide a forward look at two approaches policy makers can engage when seeking to fund developmental prevention.

I then conclude with four action steps for research and policy that can facilitate the dissemination of effective and efficient developmental crime prevention efforts, crime prevention articles. Crime prevention articles, the priority ranking and utility approach employed by Manning et al.

Such approaches are gaining acceptance as they aim to estimate the value of preventing crime more completely—departing from ex-post approaches that rely explicitly on monetizable burden Brookshire and Crocker, ; Ryan and Watson, Furthermore, particularly for health outcomes, they avoid certain distributional problems that value morbidity and mortality at different crime prevention articles for different groups e.

Although there is growing support for employing utility estimates to guide decision making, these approaches can be limited by the lack of clear cost and benefit estimates Marsh, Chalfin, and Roman, ; Weinstein and Manning, Several new efforts over the last 5 years have sought to promote the development of such estimates.

This initiative partners with states to implement an innovative benefit-cost approach that assists policy makers seeking to invest in programs that can reduce crime, improve health, and result in public savings. In part, the value of approaches that seek to monetize program outcomes is borne out by the ability to make estimates transferable across settings where the value of currency is likely shared across groups.

The approach outlined by Manning et al. Specifically, a group of decision makers surveyed in one area or time may have a dramatically different valuation of a program than decision makers in another region at a different time. To use Manning et al, crime prevention articles.

Furthermore, estimates will need to account for the larger body of prevention programs available in the marketplace. Although Manning et al. Ultimately, these programs may need to be included to facilitate decision maker buy-in. In this context, there is a role for both utility approaches that elicit clear guidance for policy making as well as economic and fiscal analyses that place a monetary value on crime prevention programs.

Next, I consider the importance of capturing infrastructure needs in program costs, the case for dual-generation programs, and promising approaches for investing in prevention. Recently, while accepting the Stockholm Prize in Criminology, Dr. David Farrington called for creation of national agencies to coordinate domestic prevention strategies Farrington, Although he is not the first to recognize that the patchwork of developmental crime prevention programs spanning the globe is inadequate for meeting the needs of youth at risk, Professor Farrington went further to outline the form and function of such agencies.

This outline included the a recognition that crime prevention articles crime prevention efforts are largely missing in most countries, b the need for continuous funding of prevention programs, and c the importance of building local prevention capacity, crime prevention articles. For instance, most crime prevention is provided either when youth first enter the juvenile justice system secondary prevention or in an effort to prevent future recidivism tertiary prevention; Farrington, These efforts are generally delivered in the context of the criminal justice system.

In contrast, primary crime prevention programs have little or no natural home Dunworth, Mills, Cordner, and Greene, crime prevention articles Hawkins and Weis, ; Hawkins et al. Schools generally have too many competing priorities to provide potent crime prevention efforts, and law enforcement personnel are rarely given the resources to implement effective crime prevention strategies among populations that have yet to commit a crime Dunworth et al.

Developmental crime prevention programs delivered without appropriate levels of infrastructure and capacity not only are at risk for failing but also clutter a crowded marketplace. They contribute to a belief that prevention, although it is a nice idea, has weak effects at best Caulkins, Pacula, Paddock, and Chiesa, crime prevention articles, ; Spence and Crime prevention articles, In reality, developmental prevention programs that have been delivered with fidelity and have received adequate resources are not only effective but also cost effective Barnett and Masse, ; Crime prevention articles, Horn, Abdulkadri, Kalsekar, and Branstetter, ; Foster, Jones, and the Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group, ; Guyll et al.

Also, these programs face the same loss of potency that many effective medical interventions experience when delivered in parts of the world without the requisite infrastructure electricity and refrigeration and capacity medical knowledge and reliable staff; Woolf, The reality of investing in human development means that effective and efficient prevention efforts cannot succeed in environments with unstable or mismanaged funding streams Johnson, crime prevention articles, Hays, Center, and Daley, crime prevention articles, ; Scheirer and Dearing, To build efficient prevention efforts, investments also must support building local infrastructure and crime prevention articles sustainable efforts with diverse funding streams that, when possible, recapture downstream savings for reinvestment Catalano, ; Crowley et crime prevention articles. To accomplish this goal, first researchers will need to provide a clear estimate of these costs.

As described by Manning et al. Numerous barriers are holding the field back in this area, but the primary obstacle stems from the difficulty in linking outcomes in childhood to future economic impact Crowley et al. Crime prevention articles delinquency often occurs initially within the home and then in primary school where costs are low and crime prevention articles to quantify likely in the form of lost parent or teacher productivity; Karoly, ; Karoly et al, crime prevention articles.

These costs often are only apparent for the severest youth—until adolescence—when the rate of and harm from delinquent behavior grows exponentially Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group, ; Foster and Jones, Furthermore, the greatest economic impacts from criminal activity tend not to become manifest until youth enter the labor force or the criminal justice system Bongers, Koot, van der Ende, and Verhulst, ; Cohen, Piquero, and Jennings, ; Hao and Woo, ; Heckman et al.

Consequently, the delayed benefits to youth from prevention programs makes investing in new developmental efforts difficult not only from a budgetary standpoint but also from a political one Welsh and Farrington, Interestingly, some forms of developmental crime prevention programs seek to target not only youth but also their families St.

Pierre, Layzer, and Barnes, In practice, dual-generation approaches comprise efforts that combine high-quality early education programs for youth with opportunities for parents to participate in workforce development and parent training programs Foundation for Child Development, In this manner, benefits accrue not only in the long term for youth but also in the near crime prevention articles for parents. In turn, these improved parent outcomes augment developmental gains from early education programs e.

One commonly cited example is the Nurse Family Partnership program. Importantly, Manning et al. In this manner, dual-generation approaches can make developmental crime prevention programs more appealing to decision makers seeking to demonstrate the value of their investments in the near term. Therefore, crime prevention articles, this knowledge leads us to two innovative approaches for investing in and sustaining developmental crime prevention programs: prevention portfolios and social impact bonds.

Global austerity efforts have forced policy makers to both cut services and avoid investing in programs that carry even a relatively low risk of failure.

In response, innovative approaches for funding new programs and lowering risk to the taxpayer are gaining traction. One such approach is the development of investment portfolios comprised of many prevention programs. These portfolios offer policy makers a variety of programs with different returns-on-investment ROIs and different levels of risk Aos et al. In this manner, policy makers can make explicit asset allocation decisions for each program in the portfolio.

Like traditional financial portfolios, this approach distributes risk across different areas e. WSIPP has delivered these estimates to the legislature over the years and has increased state investment in prevention dramatically Dueffert, As a result, crime prevention articles, the state has observed meaningful declines in crime and incarceration—to the extent it avoided planned prison construction.

The success of this model was the inspiration behind the Results First Initiative described previously and is being replicated across many U.

In contrast to the portfolio approach that relies on public investment in developmentally based prevention, there is growing interest by many governments in offering the private sector incentives to invest in social welfare programs.

These crime prevention articles are offered by governments to private investors to support prevention programs known to have a high ROI Horesh, ; Liebman, ; Liebman and Sellman, If the program is successful in delivering public savings, then the private investors receive both their principal investment and a predefined return similar to a structured product or equity investment.

The first social impact bond was developed by Social Finance UK in Since then, Australia and the United States have both observed offerings of social impact bonds e. These trials are being closely watched for evidence that this new funding mechanism could be effectively used to support and incentivize efficient developmentally based crime prevention efforts. Manning et al. By further considering the economics of investing in developmental crime prevention programs, we can identify multiple actionable steps for research and policy.

Combined, they offer the opportunity to build more efficient crime prevention articles prevention efforts that will lead to substantial future savings. These steps are as follows:. Replicate Manning et al. Develop robust estimates of the costs from implementing and scaling developmental crime prevention programs.

Invest in dual-generation interventions that deliver prevention programs to both youth and their families. Engage innovative mechanisms for investing in crime prevention efforts, including the development of prevention portfolios and social impact bonds. In this context, policy makers wishing to install effective and efficient developmental crime programs into current crime prevention and control efforts should consider the utility of Manning et al.

Furthermore, policy makers should carefully consider the available programming infrastructure and capacity in target areas, the use of dual-generation programs, and innovative investment strategies that protect public resources from risk. The author gratefully acknowledges the feedback from Dr.

His research program seeks to prevent the development of health inequalities and criminal behavior through evidence-based investments in childhood and adolescence. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Criminol Public Policy. Author manuscript; available in PMC Aug Max Crowley. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Max Crowley, Duke University.

Direct correspondence to: D. Copyright notice, crime prevention articles. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Hedging Our Bets: Building Prevention Portfolios and the Promise of Social Impact Bonds Global austerity efforts have forced policy makers to both cut services and avoid investing in programs that carry even a relatively low risk of failure.

Conclusions Manning et al. These steps are crime prevention articles follows: Replicate Manning et al. Acknowledgments The author gratefully acknowledges the feedback from Dr. Implementation and dissemination of methods for prevention of alcohol problems in primary health care: A feasibility study. Alcohol and Alcoholism. Rehabilitating criminal justice policy and practice. Psychology, Public Policy and Law.

 

Topic: Crime Prevention | NCJRS

 

crime prevention articles

 

Community crime prevention programs or strategies target changes in community infrastructure, culture, or the physical environment in order to reduce crime. The diversity of approaches include neighborhood watch, community policing, urban or physical design, and comprehensive or multi-disciplinary efforts. An Office of Justice Programs resource, the National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) offers information and resources on crime prevention and other topics to support research, policy, and program development worldwide. The requiread-w.ga Web site is a resource to help practitioners and policymakers understand what works in justice-related programs and practices. It includes information on justice-related programs and assigns evidence ratings--effective, promising, and no effects--to indicate whether there is evidence from research that a program achieves its goals.